Monday, 15 August 2011
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Article Source: http://takeawayslondon.com
Thursday, 17 March 2011
All grains, with the exception of rice, and the various grain meals, require prolonged cooking with gentle and continuous heat, in order to so disintegrate their tissues and change their starch into dextrine as to render them easy of digestion. Even the so-called "steam-cooked" grains, advertised to be ready for use in five or ten minutes, require a much longer cooking to properly fit them for digestion. These so-called quickly prepared grains are simply steamed before grinding, which has the effect to destroy any low organisms contained in the grain. They are then crushed and shredded. Bicarbonate of soda and lime is added to help dissolve the albuminoids, and sometimes diastase to aid the conversion of the starch into sugar; but there is nothing in this preparatory process that so alters the chemical nature of the grain as to make it possible to cook it ready for easy digestion in five or ten minutes. An insufficiently cooked grain, although it may be palatable, is not in a condition to be readily acted upon by the digestive fluids, and is in consequence left undigested to act as a mechanical irritant.
Water is the liquid usually employed for cooking grains, but many of them are richer and finer flavored when milk is mixed with the water, one part to two of water. Especially is this true of rice, hominy, and farina. When water is used, soft water is preferable to hard. No salt is necessary, but if used at all, it is generally added to the water before stirring in the grain or meal.
The quantity of liquid required varies with the different grains, the manner in which they are milled, the method by which they are cooked, and the consistency desired for the cooked grain, more liquid being required for a porridge than for a mush.
All grains should be carefully looked over before being put to cook.
In the cooking of grains, the following points should be observed:
1. Measure both liquid and grain accurately with the same utensil, or with two of equal size.
2. Have the water boiling when the grain is introduced, but do not allow it to boil for a long time previous, until it is considerably evaporated, as that will change the proportion of water and grain sufficiently to alter the consistency of the mush when cooked. Introduce the grain slowly, so as not to stop the sinking to the bottom, and the whole becomes thickened.
3. Stir the grain continuously until it has set, but not at all afterward. Grains are much more appetizing if, while properly softened, they can still be made to retain their original form. Stirring renders the preparation pasty, and destroys its appearance.
In the preparation of all mushes with meal or flour, it is a good plan to make the material into a batter with a portion of the liquid retained from the quantity given, before introducing it into the boiling water. This prevents the tendency to cook in lumps, so frequent when dry meal is scattered into boiling liquid. Care must be taken, however, to add the moistened portion very slowly, stirring vigorously meantime, so that the boiling will not be checked. Use warm water for moistening. The other directions given for the whole or broken grains are applicable to the ground products.
Place the grain, when sufficiently cooked, in the refrigerator or in some place where it will cool quickly (as slow cooling might cause fermentation), to remain overnight.
Monday, 14 March 2011
During the period between the birth and maturity of animals, their flesh undergoes very considerable changes. For instance, when the animal is young, the fluids which the tissues of the muscles contain, possess a large proportion of what is called albumen . This albumen, which is also the chief component of the white of eggs, possesses the peculiarity of coagulating or hardening at a certain temperature, like the white of a boiled egg, into a soft, white fluid, no longer soluble, or capable of being dissolved in water. As animals grow older, this peculiar animal matter gradually decreases, in proportion to the other constituents of the juice of the flesh. Thus, the reason why veal, lamb are white, and without gravy when cooked, is, that the large quantity of albumen they contain hardens, or becomes coagulated. On the other hand, the reason why beef and mutton are brown, and have gravy , is, that the proportion of albumen they contain, is small, in comparison with their greater quantity of fluid which is soluble, and not coagulable.
The quality of the flesh of an animal is considerably influenced by the nature of the food on which it has been fed ; for the food supplies the material which produces the flesh. If the food be not suitable and good, the meat cannot be good either. To the experienced in this matter, it is well known that the flesh of animals fed on farinaceous produce, such as corn, pulse, &c., is firm, well-flavoured, and also economical in the cooking; that the flesh of those fed on succulent and pulpy substances, such as roots, possesses these qualities in a somewhat less degree; whilst the flesh of those whose food contains fixed oil, as linseed, is greasy, high coloured, and gross in the fat, and if the food has been used in large quantities, possessed of a rank flavour.
It is indispensable to the good quality of meat, that the animal should be perfectly healthy at the time of its slaughter. However slight the disease in an animal may be, inferiority in the quality of its flesh, as food, is certain to be produced. In most cases, indeed, as the flesh of diseased animals has a tendency to very rapid putrefaction, it becomes not only unwholesome, but absolutely poisonous, on account of the absorption of the virus of the unsound meat into the systems of those who partake of it. The external indications of good and bad meat will be described under its own particular head, but we may here premise that the layer of all wholesome meat, when freshly killed, adheres firmly to the bone.
Another circumstance greatly affecting the quality of meat, is the animal's treatment before it is slaughtered . This influences its value and wholesomeness in no inconsiderable degree. It will be easy to understand this, when we reflect on those leading principles by which the life of an animal is supported and maintained. These are, the digestion of its food, and the assimilation of that food into its substance. Nature, in effecting this process, first reduces the food in the stomach to a state of pulp, under the name of chyme, which passes into the intestines, and is there divided into two principles, each distinct from the other. One, a milk-white fluid, the nutritive portion, is absorbed by innumerable vessels which open upon the mucous membrane, or inner coat of the intestines. These vessels, or absorbents, discharge the fluid into a common duct, or road, along which it is conveyed to the large veins in the neighbourhood of the heart. Here it is mixed with the venous blood (which is black and impure) returning from every part of the body, and then it supplies the waste which is occasioned in the circulating stream by the arterial (or pure) blood having furnished matter for the substance of the animal. The blood of the animal having completed its course through all parts, and having had its waste recruited by the digested food, is now received into the heart, and by the action of that organ it is urged through the lungs, there to receive its purification from the air which the animal inhales. Again returning to the heart, it is forced through the arteries, and thence distributed, by innumerable ramifications, called capillaries, bestowing to every part of the animal, life and nutriment. The other principle the innutritive portion passes from the intestines, and is thus got rid of. It will now be readily understood how flesh is affected for bad, if an animal is slaughtered when the circulation of its blood has been increased by over-driving, ill-usage, or other causes of excitement, to such a degree of rapidity as to be too great for the capillaries to perform their functions, and causing the blood to be congealed in its minuter vessels. Where this has been the case, the meat will be dark-coloured, and become rapidly putrid; so that self-interest and humanity alike dictate kind and gentle treatment of all animals destined to serve as food for man.
Saturday, 12 March 2011
Bad cholesterol or a bad diet is something we all
experience at some point in time. It's impossible
to eat healthy our whole lives, even though we may
try hard to do it. Eating healthy for your heart
is something everyone should try to do, especially
when it comes to restoring health and reducing
Your heart and food
We know these things for sure - a diet high in
saturated fats will help raise your cholesterol,
which is a risk factor for heart disease. People
that are obese are more prone to heart disease. A
diet high in sodium may elevate your blood pressure,
leading to inflammation and even heart disease.
To help prevent heart disease and improve your health,
put the tips below to good use.
Eat plenty of fish
Herring, sardines, and salmon are all excellent sources
of Omega 3 essential fatty acids. Other fish are great
to, although Omega 3 may help to get your cholesterol
down to a healthier level.
Choosing healthy fats and oils
Saturated fat will increase the risk of heart disease.
It's found in meat, butter, and even coconut oil. You
should avoid them until your cholesterol levels are
down and you are at a healthy weight. Even those
that love red meats can enjoy seafood and nuts for
their main sources of protein.
Monounsaturated fats such as olive oils will help
you to protect your heart. Olive oil is an ideal
choice for cooking, dressing, or even as a dipping
Plenty of fiber
Fiber can help you control your cholesterol. You
can find fiber in whole grain products to help
control sugar absorption as well, which will help
you keep your digestive system healthy.
Eating for your heart involves staying away from
sugary foods such as candy, cookies, cakes, and
pastries. Eating a lot of sugar isn't good for
your heart disease at all. Healthy carbohydrates
involve whole grain breads, whole grain pasta, brown
rice, and a lot of vegetables. You should make
fruits and vegetables the main aspect of your diet.
Healthy cooking methods
Stir frying and sauteing with olive oil or canola
oil are both great methods, as you shouldn't dip
your food in batter and fry it anymore. If you
cook chicken, remove the skin and bake it in the
oven in foil.
Instead of frying your fish you should always bake
it. Steaming your vegetables can help maintain the
most nutrients. You should use cream sauces or lots
of butter anymore either. When you eat vegetables,
try squeezing lemon juice on them or using your
As you make the proper changes to your diet, keep in
mind that it takes time for them to become habits.
Eating healthy is always great for your body and your
lifestyle, especially when it comes to your heart and
the prevention of heart disease.
Thursday, 10 March 2011
For students, eating at college is an entire new
ball game, with late night pizza delivery and food
from buggies. Even though some of these quick and
simple options taste great, they are probably
not healthy for a student's body.
The food choices students make can affect whether
or not they are able to remain awake during class
and whether or not they will come down with
mononucleosis when it hits campus. The problem
is not only about eating junk food, it's more
about not getting the proper proteins, carbs,
vitamins, and minerals that people need.
When it comes to defending against illnesses,
vitamins and minerals are very important. Just
because they are important, isn't a reason for
students to run out and stock up on vitamins and
supplements. It's best for students to get their
nutrition from food.
You can find vitamin C in citric fruits, Vitamin
A in milk and diary products, and vitamin E in
nuts, whole wheat products, and even green leafy
vegetables. This is the ideal way to get
nutrition, as your body relies on these vitamins
for many reasons.
When you eat on campus, skip on the soda's and
go right to the juice machines. Explore the
different entrees available and go to the salad
bar where there are fresh vegetables. You can
also try putting some broccoli and cauliflower
in the microwave for steamed vegetables. There
are always healthy cereals and plenty of fresh
fruit available in dining halls as well.
Always remember that eating healthy isn't just
about avoiding greasy foods. Eating healthy
involves getting a balanced diet and getting the
right nutrients and vitamins to keep your body
in peak performance - or at least awake during
Tuesday, 8 March 2011
The vegetarian way of eating can be a very healthy style
of eating. The rules still apply with healthy eating,
although you should add variety, balance, and moderation.
A vegetarian is someone who avoids all types of meat,
whether it be hamburgers, hotdogs, chicken, or even fish.
Vegetarians are also sometimes classified by the type of
food they are or aren't willing to eat. For example,
Lacto-ovo vegetarians will avoid animal flesh yet they
will eat eggs and most dairy products. A Vegan on the
other hand, will avoid all food that has any trace of
Because they don't eat meet, vegetarians will often
wonder how they'll get enough protein. Although you may
not realize it, the average American actually consumes
more protein than he actually needs. For the lacto-ovo
vegetarian, dairy products are an excellent source of
protein. Vegans on the other hand, get their protein
from nuts, seeds, and soy products.
Along the lines of beans, there are several to choose
from, including green or red lentils, peanuts, split
peas, pinto, soy, kidney, and many more. Some of them
you are already familiar, such as kidney beans in
chili, refried beans in Mexican dishes, red beans and
rice, and pinto beans. Although some beans taste good
as they are, others are available with different flavors
to help enhance their taste. Nuts are hihg in protein,
although they deliver a lot more fat than beans, which
means you should enjoy them in moderation. By having
one cup of cooked beans, you'll get the same amount of
protein as eating two ounces of meat!
The nutrients of concern for vegans, who avoid all types
of animal food, are vitamin B12, calcium, and vitamin D.
In the average North American diet, the primary source
for B12 is animals. To have an adequate intake of B12,
vegans should reguarly consume vitamin B12 supplements or
foods, which contain vitamin B12, such as soy products
For calcium, vegans can rely on orange juice or soy
milk, as they are fortified with calcium. Beans and
leafy green vegetables will also contain some calcium as
Although all types of vegetarians rely on simple food
groups, controlling your vitamins and calcium intake is
something you should always do. This is very important
for eating healthy, as well as staying healthy. If you
control what you eat, you'll have many years of healthy
Saturday, 5 March 2011
If you have problems serving healthy foods because
of the prices, you'll find these tips to be just
what you need to eat healthy on a budget.
1. Eliminate junk food
Doing your shopping on your own is the easiest way
to shop, as children and sometimes spouses are
usually the ones requesting junk food. Shopping
alone will prevent this, and ensure that you only
buy the foods you need.
2. Water or milk instead of soft drinks
You can still enjoy your favorite drinks at a
sporting event or night out, although you should
stick with the smallest size when shopping to save
money and calories. Children and even adults need
milk or milk products on a daily basis. Milk will
also help you get strong and provides calcium for
healthy bones and healthy teeth.
3. Buy fruits in quantity
Whne they are in season, buy fruits in quantity
and freeze any extras. You can buy several pounds
this way, and freeze extras to have them when the
fruit goes out of season. Wash the fruit well,
remove any spoiled pieces, dry thoroughly, then
freeze in plastic zipper bags.
4. Meats and beans
Meats and beans are the best sources for protein.
Lean meat is more expensive than meats with a lot
of fat. Canned beans are a great deal as well,
as they give you protein at a great price.
5. Beans as a substitute
You should use beans a substitute for meat on a
frequent occasion. There are several varieties,
so you can prepare them in a crock pot, so when
you return home they are ready to consume.
The USDA recommends eating beans at least 4 times
per week. If you experience gas after eating
beans you should try washing them, covering them
with water, bringing the water to a boil, then
draining it off and refilling the pot.
6. If you live in a coastal area or an area
where fish are around, make that an integral
part of your diet. You can catch them from the
lakes or rivers, saving money in the process.
7. Peanut butter is great for those on a budget
as it's popular with almost everyone. You can
use it for sandwiches instead of eating hot
dogs. It does need to be refrigerated, although
bigger jars can last you for weeks.
8. You should fill up with foods that have a high
content of water. Watermelon, salads, and even
sugar free gelatin are all great examples.
Eating healthy is always something you can't go
wrong with. You can eat healthy for just a few
bucks, which makes it perfect for those on a
budget. Now, you don't need a lot of money to have
the lifestyle and health you've always wanted.
Thursday, 3 March 2011
Whether your traveling on the go or around the
home, you don't need to give up healthy eating
simply because you are on the run. The fact is,
healthy eating is even more important when your
trying to keep up with a busy schedule.
Having a good diet will help your body to handle
stress better. As you hustle about, a healthy meal
is probably the last thing you think about. The
following tips can help you eat when your on the go.
With tempting menus, large portions, and a festive
atmosphere, it's easy to skip healthy eating. It's
okay to splurge every now and then, although you'll
pack on a lot of weight if you make it a habit.
When you eat out at restaurants, always be smart
An airport can be a very stressful place, although
you shouldn't scrap your diet because of it. Eat
because you are hungry, not because of stress,
boredom, or to kill time.
In your car
Keep some healthy snacks in your car at all times,
so that when you get hungry - you have them.
Evenings and mornings are busy times in most homes.
Making the time to eat can be hard, although you
shouldn't run out the door without eating breakfast
first. Cereal with milk, a banana, muffin, or even
a bagel is a great way to start the day.
Anytime you are on the go, always make sure that you
make the right food decisions. You can take healthy
food with you if you need to, so that you have it
when you need it. Eating healthy on the go is easy
to do, once you know how. Never sacrifice healthy
food for junk, as your body will regret it later.
Tuesday, 1 March 2011
Lean, juicy beef, mutton, and veal, form the basis of all good soups; therefore it is advisable to procure those pieces which afford the richest succulence, and such as are fresh-killed. Stale meat renders them bad, and fat is not so well adapted for making them. The principal art in composing good rich soup, is so to proportion the several ingredients that the flavour of one shall not predominate over another, and that all the articles of which it is composed, shall form an agreeable whole. To accomplish this, care must be taken that the roots and herbs are perfectly well cleaned, and that the water is proportioned to the quantity of meat and other ingredients. Generally a quart of water may be allowed to a pound of meat for soups, and half the quantity for gravies. In making soups or gravies, gentle stewing or simmering is incomparably the best. It may be remarked, however, that a really good soup can never be made but in a well-closed vessel, although, perhaps, greater wholesomeness is obtained by an occasional exposure to the air. Soups will, in general, take from three to six hours doing, and are much better prepared the day before they are wanted. When the soup is cold, the fat may be much more easily and completely removed; and when it is poured off, care must be taken not to disturb the settlings at the bottom of the vessel, which are so fine that they will escape through a sieve. A tamis is the best strainer, and if the soup is strained while it is hot, let the tamis or cloth be previously soaked in cold water. Clear soups must be perfectly transparent, and thickened soups about the consistence of cream. To thicken and give body to soups and gravies, potato-mucilage, arrow-root, bread-raspings, isinglass, flour and butter, barley, rice, or oatmeal, in a little water rubbed well together, are used. A piece of boiled beef pounded to a pulp, with a bit of butter and flour, and rubbed through a sieve, and gradually incorporated with the soup, will be found an excellent addition. When the soup appears to be too thin or too weak , the cover of the boiler should be taken off, and the contents allowed to boil till some of the watery parts have evaporated; or some of the thickening materials, above mentioned, should be added. When soups and gravies are kept from day to day in hot weather, they should be warmed up every day, and put into fresh scalded pans or tureens, and placed in a cool cellar. In temperate weather, every other day may be sufficient.
Various herbs and vegetables are required for the purpose of making soups and gravies. Of these the principal are, Scotch barley, pearl barley, wheat flour, oatmeal, bread-raspings, pease, beans, rice, vermicelli, macaroni, isinglass, potato-mucilage, mushroom or mushroom ketchup, champignons, parsnips, carrots, beetroot, turnips, garlic, shalots and onions. Sliced onions, fried with butter and flour till they are browned, and then rubbed through a sieve, are excellent to heighten the colour and flavour of brown soups and sauces, and form the basis of many of the fine relishes furnished by the cook. The older and drier the onion, the stronger will be its flavour. Leeks, cucumber, or burnet vinegar; celery or celery-seed pounded. The latter, though equally strong, does not impart the delicate sweetness of the fresh vegetable; and when used as a substitute, its flavour should be corrected by the addition of a bit of sugar. Cress-seed, parsley, common thyme, lemon thyme, orange thyme, knotted marjoram, sage, mint, winter savoury, and basil. As fresh green basil is seldom to be procured, and its fine flavour is soon lost, the best way of preserving the extract is by pouring wine on the fresh leaves.
For the seasoning of soups, bay-leaves, tomato, tarragon, chervil, burnet, allspice, cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, clove, mace, black and white pepper, essence of anchovy, lemon-peel, and juice, and Seville orange-juice, are all taken. The latter imparts a finer flavour than the lemon, and the acid is much milder. These materials, with wine, mushroom ketchup, Harvey's sauce, tomato sauce, combined in various proportions, are, with other ingredients, manipulated into an almost endless variety of excellent soups and gravies. Soups, which are intended to constitute the principal part of a meal, certainly ought not to be flavoured like sauces, which are only designed to give a relish to some particular dish.
Saturday, 26 February 2011
It can be very tempting to abandon your good sense
of healthy eating on vacation. Although you may
strive for healthy eating, it's easy to drift off
and grab an ice cream cone here and there. There
are however, ways to watch what you eat on
It's easier than ever these days to request a low
fat or vegetarian meal on airplane flights. If
you choose to instead drive to your destination,
the quest to find healthy food can get a bit more
Rather than simply relying on greasy foods for
nutrition, pack some nutritious foods in a cooler
full of ice packs. Fruits and vegetables, crackers,
yogurt, and sandwiches are all great to have with
you on the road.
Once you arrive at your hotel, you should do
yourself a favor and turn the minibar key down - as
this helps to avoid the temptation. If your hotel
offers a continental breakfast, stick to fruits,
cereals, and proteins. If your hotel has a stove
or microwave, consider bringing your own healthy
food with you.
If you simply must eat out, do so only when you
are hungry. Restaurants will usually serve large
portions, so be careful. If you do go a bit over
on a meal, simply cut back on the next.
If you find it hard to fit in three square meals
a day, try to fit in six smaller meals or snacks,
as your body needs fuel every four hours or so.
When you eat out, avoid appetizers. Whatever you
do, do not miss any meals.
When it's possible, you should avoid eating large
meals at night. When your body gets ready for
sleep and slows down, it also burns calories at a
much slower pace. Never eat bread before bed, and
make sure to avoid the butter. Choose fish or
poultry for your meal instead, and include
vegetables as a side dish.
Even though it may sound hard, eating healthy on
vacation isn't really that difficult. All you have
to do is use a little will power, and pass up
foods that you know aren't good for you. This
way, you'll enjoy healthy eating and a healthy
lifestyle wherever you go.
The next time you go on a vacation, always remember
that eating healthy is a way of life. You can
afford to get something you crave, although you
shouldn't make a habit of it. One ice cream
cone or a pizza isn't going to matter - as long as
you know when to stop.
Friday, 25 February 2011
If you go out to a restaurant to eat, you probably
watch your calories very closely. To assist you
with your calorie watching when dining out, these
tips will help you make the most of it.
- Always order salad dressings or sauces on the side,
as this way you have control over how much you add
to your meal.
- When you order grilled fish or vegetables, you
should ask that the food be grilled without butter
or oil, or prepared with very little or either or.
- Anytime you order pasta dishes, be on the lookout
for tomato based sauces instead of the cream based
sauces. Tomato based sauces are much lower in fat
and calories, and tomato sauce can even be counted
as a vegetable!
- You should always try to drink water, diet soda,
or tea instead of soda or beverages that contain
- If you order dessert, share with a friend. Half
of the dessert will equal half of the calories.
- When you choose a soup, remember that cream
based soups are higher in fat and calories than
other soups. A soup can be a great appetizer, as
most are low in calories and you fill you up pretty
- When ordering a baked potato, ask for salsa instead
of sour cream, butter, cheese, or even bacon. Salsa
is very low in calories and provides a healthy
alternative with plenty of flavor and spice.
- When you are full, stop eating. Listen to your
body and what it tells you.
- If you get full, take half of your meal home.
The second portion of your meal can serve as a second
meal later. This way, you get two meals for the
price of one.
- If you're looking to eat less, order two appetizers
or an appetizer and a salad as your meal.
- If you get a choice of side dishes, get a baked
potato or steamed vegetables instead of french
- Always look for food on the menu that's baked,
grilled, broiled, poached, or steamed. These types
of cooking use less fat in the cooking process and
are usually much lower in calories.
- Plain bread or rolls are low in both fat and
calories. When you add the butter and oil, you
increase the fat and calorie intake.
- As key ingredients to your meal, choose dishes
with fruits and vegetables. Both fruits and
vegetables are great sources of dietary fiber as
well as many vitamins and minerals.
- Choose foods made with whole grains, such as
whole wheat bread and dishes made with brown rice.
- If you crave dessert, look for something with
low fat, such as berries or fruit.
- Always remember not to deprive yourself of the
foods you truly love. All types of foods can fit
into a well balanced diet.
Wednesday, 23 February 2011
The nutrition label located on each and every food item,
will tell you all the information about that food. For
some however, this information isn't exactly that reader
friendly. Fear not, as it's actually easier than you
This size is based on the amount people eat. Similar
food items will have similar serving sizes, thus making
it easier to compare 2 foods of the same category.
% Daily Value
This indicates how food will fit in a 2,000 calorie
diet. This will help you to understand if the food
has a lot, or just a little of the important nutrients.
The middle section
The nutrients you'll find listed in the middle section
are the ones that are most important to your health.
This information can help you to calculate your daily
limit of fat, fiber, sodium, and other nutrients.
Vitamins & minerals
The percent daily value found here is the exact same
as the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowance for vitamins
Now that you know what the nutrition label actually
means, it'll be a lot easy to eat healthy. Eating
healthy is a great thing - especially when you use the
nutrition label to assist you with your food choices.
Monday, 21 February 2011
Whenever we get too busy or stressed, we all tend
to make poor food choices that will actually
increase stress and cause other problems. To get
the most of your healthy eating and avoid stress,
follow these simple tips.
Always eat breakfast
Even though you may think you aren't hungry,
you need to eat something. Skipping breakfast
makes it harder to maintain the proper blood and
sugar levels during the day, so you should always
Carry a snack
Keeping some protein rich snacks in your car,
office, or pocket book will help you avoid blood
sugar level dips, the accompanying mood swings, and
the fatigue. Trail mix, granola bars, and energy
bars all have the nutrients you need.
If you like to munch when you're stressed out,
you can replace chips or other non healthy foods
with carrot sticks, celery sticks, or even
Bring your lunch
Although a lot of people prefer to eat fast food
for lunch, you can save a lot of money and actually
eat healthier if you take a few minutes and pack
a lunch at home. Even if you only do this a few
times a week, you'll see a much better improvement
over eating out.
Stock your home
As important as it is to get the bad food out of
your house, it's even more important to get the good
food in! The best way to do this is to plan a menu
of healthy meals at snacks at the beginning of the
week, list the ingedients you need, then go shop
for it. This way, you'll know what you want when
you need it and you won't have to stress over what
Friday, 18 February 2011
Ingredients:- 2 lbs. of beef or veal (these can be omitted), any kind of white fish trimmings, of fish which are to be dressed for table, 2 onions, the rind of 1/2 a lemon, a bunch of sweet herbs, 2 carrots, 2 quarts of water.
Mode:- Cut up the fish, and put it, with the other ingredients, into the water. Simmer for 2 hours; skim the liquor carefully, and strain it. When a richer stock is wanted, fry the vegetables and fish before adding the water.
Time. 2 hours.
Note. Do not make fish stock long before it is wanted, as it soon turns sour.
Ingredients:- 50 crayfish, 1/4 lb. of butter, 6 anchovies, the crumb of 1 French roll, a little lobster-spawn, seasoning to taste, 2 quarts of medium stock or fish stock.
Mode:- Shell the crayfish, and put the fish between two plates until they are wanted; pound the shells in a mortar, with the butter and anchovies; when well beaten, add a pint of stock, and simmer for 3/4 of an hour. Strain it through a hair sieve, put the remainder of the stock to it, with the crumb of the rolls; give it one boil, and rub it through a tammy, with the lobster-spawn. Put in the fish, but do not let the soup boil, after it has been rubbed through the tammy. If necessary, add seasoning.
Time. 1-1/2 hour.
Ingredients:- 3 lbs. of eels, 1 onion, 2 oz. of butter, 3 blades of mace, 1 bunch of sweet herbs, 1/4 oz. of peppercorns, salt to taste, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 1/4 pint of cream, 2 quarts of water.
Mode:- Wash the eels, cut them into thin slices, and put them in the stewpan with the butter; let them simmer for a few minutes, then pour the water to them, and add the onion, cut in thin slices, the herbs, mace, and seasoning. Simmer till the eels are tender, but do not break the fish. Take them out carefully, mix the flour smoothly to a batter with the cream, bring it to a boil, pour over the eels, and serve.
Time. 1 hour, or rather more.
Note. This soup may be flavoured differently by omitting the cream, and adding a little ketchup.
Ingredients. 3 large lobsters, or 6 small ones; the crumb of a French roll, 2 anchovies, 1 onion, 1 small bunch of sweet herbs, 1 strip of lemon-peel, 2 oz. of butter, a little nutmeg, 1 teaspoonful of flour, 1 pint of cream, 1 pint of milk; forcemeat balls, mace, salt and pepper to taste, bread crumbs, 1 egg, 2 quarts of water.
Mode:- Pick the meat from the lobsters, and beat the fins, chine, and small claws in a mortar, previously taking away the brown fin and the bag in the head. Put it in a stewpan, with the crumb of the roll, anchovies, onions, herbs, lemon-peel, and the water; simmer gently till all the goodness is extracted, and strain it off. Pound the spawn in a mortar, with the butter, nutmeg, and flour, and mix with it the cream and milk. Give one boil up, at the same time adding the tails cut in pieces. Make the forcemeat balls with the remainder of the lobster, seasoned with mace, pepper, and salt, adding a little flour, and a few bread crumbs; moisten them with the egg, heat them in the soup, and serve.
Time. 2 hours, or rather more.
Oyster soup -1.
Ingredients:- 6 dozen of oysters, 2 quarts of white stock, 1/2 pint of cream, 2 oz. of butter, 1-1/2 oz. of flour; salt, cayenne, and mace to taste.
Mode:- Scald the oysters in their own liquor; take them out, beard them, and put them in a tureen. Take a pint of the stock, put in the beards and the liquor, which must be carefully strained, and simmer for 1/2 an hour. Take it off the fire, strain it again, and add the remainder of the stock with the seasoning and mace. Bring it to a boil, add the thickening of butter and flour, simmer for 5 minutes, stir in the boiling cream, pour it over the oysters, and serve.
Time. 1 hour.
Note. This soup can be made less rich by using milk instead of cream, and thickening with arrowroot instead of butter and flour.
Oyster soup -2
Ingredients:- 2 quarts of good mutton broth, 6 dozen oysters, 2 oz. butter, 1 oz. of flour.
Mode:- Beard the oysters, and scald them in their own liquor; then add it, well strained, to the broth; thicken with the butter and flour, and simmer for 1/4 of an hour. Put in the oysters, stir well, but do not let it boil, and serve very hot.
Time. 3/4 hour.
Ingredients:- 2 quarts of fish stock or water, 2 pints of prawns, the crumbs of a French roll, anchovy sauce or mushroom ketchup to taste, 1 blade of mace, 1 pint of vinegar, a little lemon-juice.
Mode:- Pick out the tails of the prawns, put the bodies in a stewpan with 1 blade of mace, 1/2 pint of vinegar, and the same quantity of water; stew them for 1/4 hour, and strain off the liquor. Put the fish stock or water into a stewpan; add the strained liquor, pound the prawns with the crumb of a roll moistened with a little of the soup, rub them through a tammy, and mix them by degrees with the soup; add ketchup or anchovy sauce to taste, with a little lemon-juice. When it is well cooked, put in a few picked prawns; let them get thoroughly hot, and serve. If not thick enough, put in a little butter and flour.
Wednesday, 16 February 2011
Cocktails made of a combination of fruits are often served as the first course of a meal, usually a luncheon or a dinner, to precede the soup course. In warm weather, they are an excellent substitute for heavy cocktails made of lobster or crab, and they may even be used to replace the soup course. The fruits used for this purpose should be the more acid ones, for the acids and flavors are intended to serve as an appetizer, or the same purpose for which the hot and highly seasoned soups are taken. Fruit cocktails should always be served ice cold.
The cocktail here explained may be served in stemmed glasses or in the shells of the grapefruit. If the fruit shells are to be used, the grapefruit should be cut into two parts, half way between the blossom and the stem ends, the fruit removed, and the edges of the shell then notched. This plan of serving a cocktail should be adopted only when small grapefruits are used, for if the shells are large more fruit will have to be used than is agreeable for a cocktail.
2 grapefruits 2 oranges 1 c. diced pineapple, fresh or canned Powdered sugar
Remove the pulp from the grapefruits and oranges. However, if the grapefruit shells are to be used for serving the cocktail, the grapefruit should be cut in half and the pulp then taken out of the skin with a sharp knife. With the sections of pulp removed, cut each one into several pieces. Add the diced pineapple to the other fruits, mix together well and set on ice until thoroughly chilled. Put in cocktail glasses or grapefruit shells, pour a spoonful or two of orange juice over each serving, sprinkle with powdered sugar, garnish with a cherry, and serve ice cold.
As strawberries and pineapples can be obtained fresh at the same time during the summer, they are often used together in a cocktail. When sweetened slightly with powdered sugar and allowed to become ice cold, these fruits make a delicious combination.
2 c. diced fresh pineapple 2 c. sliced strawberries Powdered sugar
Prepare a fresh pineapple, and cut each slice into small pieces or dice. Wash and hull the strawberries and slice them into small slices. Mix the two fruits and sprinkle them with powdered sugar. Place in cocktail glasses and allow to stand on ice a short time before serving.
A fruit cocktail proper is made by combining a number of different kinds of fruit, such as bananas, pineapple, oranges, and maraschino cherries. Such a cocktail is served in a stemmed glass set on a small plate. Nothing more delicious than this can be prepared for the first course of a dinner or a luncheon that is to be served daintily. Its advantage is that it can be made at almost any season of the year with these particular fruits.
2 bananas 1 c. canned pineapple 2 oranges 1 doz. maraschino cherries Lemon juice Powdered sugar
Peel the bananas and dice them. Dice the pineapple. Remove the pulp from the oranges in the manner, and cut each section into several pieces. Mix these three fruits. Cut the cherries in half and add to the mixture. Set on ice until thoroughly chilled. To serve, put into cocktail glasses and add to each glass 1 tablespoonful of maraschino juice from the cherries and 1 teaspoonful of lemon juice. Sprinkle with powdered sugar and serve.
Monday, 14 February 2011
A lot of studies and research has shown that kids
who eat breakfast perform better in school and
have a healthier diet. Eating breakfast will help
promote the proper growth and maximize school
performance as well.
Breakfast is often times a victim of the morning
time crunch. Even though you may be tempted to
skip breakfast, you can simplify your morning
routine by following these 8 tips:
1. Finish homework and pack school bags
2. Decide on what your children will
wear to school before you go to bed and locate
lost shoes for the following day.
3. In the morning, get up 15 minutes
4. Give up computer games and morning
5. Have healthy foods on hand. You
should also shop for breakfast foods with your kids
and take into account their personal preferences.
6. Set the cereal out the night before.
For younger children, fill a zippered plastic bag
with her portion, then add the milk in the
7. Allow your children to use the
microwave often, as most breakfast foods can be
prepared in under 5 minutes.
8. Allow your kids to eat in the car or
on the way to school.
There are several foods that you can eat for
breakfast, even leftovers from supper if they
are sufficient. You can eat bagels, pizza with
fruit juice, pretzels, or the normal bacon and
eggs that breakfast is known for. Most foods are
a snap to prepare, and won't take you but a
The next time you are in a hurry in the morning,
remember that you are probably about to skip the
most important meal of the day. If you follow the
tips above, you'll find that you have plenty of
Saturday, 12 February 2011
This information is aimed at helping you to
reduce your fat intake. The average individual
eats too much fat, a factor that's linked to
a variety of health problems, including cancer.
Diets that are high in fat are associated with
breast and colon cancer, with some studies
linking high fat to prostate cancer as well.
A majority of people can bring their fat intakes
down to a healthy range by making a few adjustments
in the way they shop, cook, and prepare the foods
Now days, it's getting easier and easier to control
the amount of fat you consume. The fat content of
foods are now available through the nutrition label
and through brochures distributed by food companies
and even fast food restaurants.
You can use this information on nutrition to choose
lower fat foods by comparing products and food
brands. Once you have a rough idea of what a healthy
intake of fat is, you'll know what you can and what
you can't have.
From day to day, the amount of fat you eat will
vary. Some meals and some days will be higher in
fat than others. Even high fat meals can be kept
in line with healthy eating as long as you balance
those days accordingly. The average fat intake over
the course of weeks and months is important, not the
fat intake of every meal and food you consume.
Younger adults and high active adults who have
higher calorie needs can probably eat a little more
fat. Older adults and those that aren't very active
should aim for a lower fat intake. This way, you
can control your fat intake and avoid the many
problems that fat is associated with.
Thursday, 10 February 2011
With the stomach and other digestive organs in a state of perfect health, one is entirely unconscious of their existence, save when of feeling of hunger calls attention to the fact that food is required, or satiety warns us that a sufficient amount or too much has been eaten. Perfect digestion can only be maintained by careful observance of the rules of health in regard to habits of eating.
On the subject of Hygiene of Digestion, we quote a few paragraphs from Dr. Kellogg's work on Physiology, in which is given a concise summary of the more important points relating to this:
"The hygiene of digestion has to do with the quality and quantity of food eaten, in the manner of eating it.
If the food is eaten too rapidly, it will not be properly divided, and when swallowed in coarse lumps, the digestive fluids cannot readily act upon it. On account of the insufficient mastication, the saliva will be deficient in quantity, and, as a consequence, the starch will not be well digested, and the stomach will not secrete a sufficient amount of gastric juice. It is not well to eat only soft or liquid food, as we are likely to swallow it without proper chewing. A considerable proportion of hard food, which requires thorough mastication, should be eaten at every meal.
Drinking Freely at Meals is harmful, as it not only encourages hasty eating, but dilutes the gastric juice, and thus lessens its activity. The food should be chewed until sufficiently moistened by saliva to allow it to be swallowed. When large quantities of fluid are taken into the stomach, digestion does not begin until a considerable portion of the fluid has been absorbed. If cold foods or drinks are taken with the meal, such as ice-cream, ice-water, iced milk or tea, the stomach is chilled, and a long delay in the digestive process is occasioned.
The Indians of Brazil carefully abstain from drinking when eating, and the same custom prevails among many other savage tribes.
Eating between Meals.
The habit of eating apples, nuts, fruits, confectionery, etc., between meals is exceedingly harmful, and certain to produce loss of appetite and indigestion. The stomach as well as the muscles and other organs of the body requires rest. The frequency with which meals should be taken depends somewhat upon the age and occupation of an individual. Infants take their food at short intervals, and owing to its simple character, are able to digest it very quickly. Adults should not take food oftener than three times a day; and persons whose employment is sedentary say, in many cases at least, adopt with advantage the plan of the ancient Greeks, who ate but twice a day.
Simplicity in Diet.
Taking too many kinds of food at a meal is a common fault which is often a cause of disease of the digestive-organs. Those nations are the most hardy and enduring whose dietary is most simple. The Scotch peasantry live chiefly upon oatmeal, the Irish upon potatoes, milk, and oatmeal, the Italian upon peas, beans, macaroni, and chestnuts; yet all these are noted for remarkable health and endurance. The natives of the Canary Islands, an exceedingly well-developed and vigorous race, subsist almost chiefly upon a food which they call gofio, consisting of parched grain, coarsely ground in a mortar and mixed with water.
Eating when Tired.
It is not well to eat when exhausted by violent exercise, as the system is not prepared to do the work of digestion well. Sleeping immediately after eating is also a harmful practice. The process of digestion cannot well be performed during sleep, and sleep is disturbed by the ineffective efforts of the digestive organs. Hence the well-known evil effects of late suppers.
Eating too Much.
Hasty eating is the greatest cause of over-eating. When one eats too rapidly, the food is crowded into the stomach so fast that nature has no time to cry, 'Enough,' by taking away the appetite before too much has been eaten. When an excess of food is taken, it is likely to ferment or sour before it can be digested. One who eats too much usually feels dull after eating."
Monday, 7 February 2011
Grocery shopping is something we all have to do, even
though choosing the right foods can be very hard
indeed. To assist you with your healthy grocery
shopping, the tips below can indeed help make things
easier than ever before:
1. Never go grocery shopping on an empty stomach.
2. Select canned fruits and tuna that are packed in
water, not oil or syrup.
3. Look at the labels for the words "hydrogenated"
or "partially hydrogenated". The earlier you see
them appear on the list, the higher the amount of
unhealthy trans fatty acids the food will contain.
4. Don't buy turkey with the skin on it, and if
you plan to buy chicken - buy a chicken breast
5. When you select frozen dinners, select those
that are not only low in fat, but low in sodium
and cholesterol as well.
6. If you aren't consuming enough dairy products,
go with calcium fortified orange juice instead.
7. Go for whole grain breads, cereals, and rolls.
8. Give cantaloupe a try. With just 95 calories,
half of the melon will provide more than a day's
supply of Vitamin C and beta carotene.
9. Don't be tricked into buying yogurt covered
by nuts or raisins, as the coating is normally
made of sugar and partially hydrogenated oils.
10. Get some of the low fat treats, such as
pretzels, ginger snaps, and angel food cake.
By following the above tips when grocery shopping,
you'll avoid the bad foods and get those that you
need. There are many different healthy foods at
the grocery store, all it takes is the will power
to go past the bad foods and on to the good ones.
Saturday, 5 February 2011
Eating healthy is something we all would like to do,
although it can be hard. In order to eat healthy, you
must first make the right food choices. Eating healthy
is all about what you eat, which makes the choices very
crucial to your results.
You should consume 6 ounces of grains per day. To do this,
you can eat 3 ounces of whole grain cereals, breads, rice,
crackers, or pasta. You can get an ounce of grains in
a single slice of bread, or 1 cut of cereal.
These should be varied, as you should eat 2 1/2 cups of
them each day. You should start eating more of the dark
vegetables, such as broccili and spinach. Carrots and
sweet potatoes are good as well. You should also eat
more dry beans such as peas, pinto beans, and even kidney
Fruits are very important. You should try to eat 2 cups
of them each day. Focus on eating a variety, such as
fresh, frozen, canned, or even dried fruit. You can
drink fruit juices as well, although you should use
moderation when doing so.
Milk is your calcium rich friend. For adults, 3 cups
is the ideal goal. For kids 2 - 8, 2 cups is where you
want to be. When choosing milk products or yogurt, you
should go for fat-free or low-fat. Those of you who
don't like milk or can't have it, should go for lactose
free products or other sources of calcium such as fortified
foods and beverages.
Meat and beans
Eating 5 ounces a day is the ideal goal, as you should go
lean with your protein. When eating meat, always bake it,
grill it, or broil it, as this will prevent grease from
adding to the equation. You should vary your protein
as well, with more fish, beans, peas, and nuts.
When cooking your food, you should also limit solid fats
such as butter, margarine, shortening, and lard. These
foods may add flavor to your dishes, although they can
also help raise your cholesterol as well. Therefore, you
should try to add these foods and any foods that happen
to contain them.
To help keep your saturated fat, trans fat, and sodium low,
you can check the nutrition facts label. This label can
be found on the food package and will tell you all the
information you need to know about the food item.
By picking your foods wisely and watching what you eat,
you'll help control your lifestyle. Exercise is great as
well, as it goes along perfect with a healthy eating
lifestyle. No matter what your age may be, eating healthy
will help you keep your active lifestyle for years and
years - even help you and your health in the long run
Thursday, 3 February 2011
Fast food is a big part of modern life these days,
making it very hard to teach a child how he or she
should eat healthy. The cheapest and easiest foods
are those that are normally the least healthy. If
you give your child the choice between healthy food
and junk food, you normally won't like the results.
Even though it isn't possible to get a child to like
all healthy foods, there are some ways to get your
child to try and hopefully like at least a few of
them. You can be as creative as you like, as getting
kids to eat healthy foods can be a little harder than
you may think.
- Sneak the healthy food in. Even though it would
be great if your kid understood the importance of
fruits and vegetables, this isn't always possible.
If you can't get them to eat good food willingly,
there are ways to sneak them in, such as making
muffins out of bananas or apples, or pizza with
spinach on it.
- Call fruits and vegetables by funny names. You
can refer to broccoli as "trees", making them
more fun to eat. There are many different names
you can call fruits and vegetables, even making up
your own if you prefer. Most kids prefer to eat
foods that sound fun.
- Make the foods taste better. Ranch dressing is
great for broccoli, while peanut butter is a great
topping for celery. There are several combinations
for vegetables that can make them taste much
better. You can let your child pick a topping
for a vegetable, even if it's something you wouldn't
normally like yourself.
- Dress the vegetables up. Just as much as calling
them names help kids eat healthy foods, making them
look funny also helps. You can do this by making
funny designs on the plate, or setting them up to
look like people. Although some parents don't like
their kids playing with their food, sometimes it
helps to get them to eat healthier.
There are several ways to make your kids eat
healthier, but to make them enjoy it also has to
be fun as well. This isn't always an easy task,
because kids normally don't like foods that are
good for them. It can however, be done with a bit
of creativity. Hopefully, doing this will help
your child develop a love of healthy foods for the
Wednesday, 2 February 2011
To four cupfuls of flour, add one egg well beaten, and enough water to make a dough that can be rolled. Roll thin on a breadboard and cut into strips. Dry in the sun. The best arrangement for this purpose is a wooden frame to which a square of cheese-cloth has been tightly tacked, upon which the macaroni may be laid in such a way as not to touch, and afterwards covered with a cheese-cloth to keep off the dust during the drying.
Put a larg cup of macaroni into boiling water and cook until tender. When done, drained thoroughly, then add a pint of milk, part cream if it can be afforded, a little salt and one well-beaten egg; stir over the fire until it thickens, and serve hot.
Macaroni with cream sauce.
Cook the macaroni as directed in the proceeding, and serve with a cream sauce prepared by heating a scant pint of rich milk to boiling, in a double boiler. When boiling, add a heaping tablespoonful of flour, rubbed smoothed in a little milk and one fourth teaspoonful of salt. If desired, the sauce may be flavored by steeping in the milk before thickening for ten or fifteen minutes, a slice of onion or a few bits of celery, and then removing with a fork.
Macaroni with tomato sauce.
Drop a cup of macaroni into boiling milk and water, equal parts. Let it boil for an hour, or until perfectly tender. In the meantime prepare the sauce by rubbing a pint of stewed or canned tomatoes through a colander to remove all seeds and fragments. Heat to boiling, thicken with a little flour; a tablespoonful to the pint will be about the requisite proportion. Add salt and if desired, a half cup of very thin sweet cream. Dish the macaroni into individual dishes, and serve with a small quantity of the sauce poured over each dish.
Macaroni baked with granola.
Cook a large cup of macaroni until tender in boiling milk and water. When done, drain and put a layer of the macaroni in the bottom of a pudding dish, and sprinkle over it a scant teaspoonful of granola. Add a second and third layer and sprinkle each with granola; then turn over the whole a custard sauce prepared by mixing together a pint of milk, the well beaten yolks of two eggs or one whole egg, and one-fourth of a teaspoonful of salt. Care should be taken to arrange the macaroni in layers loosely, so that the sauce will readily permeate the whole. Bake for a few minutes only, until the custard has well set, and serve.
Eggs and macaroni.
Cook a cup of macaroni in boiling water. While the macaroni is cooking, boil the yolks of four eggs until mealy. The whole egg may be used if caught so the yolks are mealy in the whites simply jellied, not hardened. When the macaroni is done, drain and put a layer of it arranged loosely in the bottom of a pudding dish. Slice the cooked egg yolks and spread a layer of them over the macaroni. Fill the dish with alternate layers of macaroni and egg, taking care to have the top layer of macaroni. Pour over the whole a cream sauce prepared as follows: Heat one and three fourths cup of rich milk to boiling, add one fourth teaspoonful of salt and one heaping spoonful of flour rubbed smooth in a little cold milk. Cook until thickened, then turn over the macaroni. Sprinkle the top with grated bread crumbs, and brown in a hot oven for eight or ten minutes. Serve hot.
Sunday, 30 January 2011
If you've been looking for a way towards a high
octane diet, you'll find fiber to be exactly what
you need. Even though research has shown fiber to
be powerful, many people aren't taking this nutrient
To help you fuel your health with fiber, here are
10 facts to help.
1. Fiber fights diseases. A diet high in fiber can
help to prevent colon cancer and heart disease. High
fiber helps the body to eliminate cholesterol by
binding it in the digestive tract. For thousands of
years, fiber has been used to stop constipation.
2. Fiber can actually help with overeating. All high
fiber foods will take longer to chew and digest,
making you feel satisfied longer
3. Most popular foods don't have enough fiber. If
you like the more popular foods, you probably need
to increase your intake of fiber.
4. Grains offer the most fiber. Dietary fiber is
actually plant matter that we cannot digest. The best
sources are whole grains and concentrated grain
5. Kids need fiber as well. Children that are older
than 2 years of age should consume a daily intake of
fiber. Kids are most receptive to fiber found in
fruits, vegetables, and even fortified breakfast
6. More fiber needs more water. In order to keep
fiber moving through your digestive tract, you'll
need to consume a lot of water. With your diet of
fiber, you'll need eight or more glasses of water
7. Fiber cannot be cooked out. When you cook
your fruits and vegetables, don't worry about cooking
the fiber out, as it stays. The fiber found in
fruits and vegetables aren't just in the skin or
in the peel.
8. You can get enough fiber. If you eat more than
50 grams of fiber in a day, you can get diarrhea
and bloating, which can interfere with your body's
absorption of other key minerals.
9. Getting the right amount of fiber in your diet
doesn't have to be hard. Even though you may think
so, getting the amount of fiber you need isn't very
hard to do. All you have to do is eat the right
foods and you'll be well on your way to a fiber
As one of the key ingredients to healthy eating,
fiber is something you don't want to skip. Fiber can
serve many different purposes, which were covered
above. If you aren't getting enough fiber in your
diet - you should do something about now instead
of waiting until it is too late.
Friday, 28 January 2011
The purposes of food are to promote growth, to supply force and heat, and to furnish material to repair the waste which is constantly taking place in the body. Every breath, every thought, every motion, wears out some portion of the delicate and wonderful house in which we live. Various vital processes remove these worn and useless particles; and to keep the body in health, their loss must be made good by constantly renewed supplies of material properly adapted to replenish the worn and impaired tissues. This renovating material must be supplied through the medium of food and drink, and the best food is that by which the desired end may be most readily and perfectly attained. The great diversity in character of the several tissues of the body, makes it necessary that food should contain a variety of elements, in order that each part may be properly nourished and replenished.
The food elements.
The various elements found in food are the following: Starch, sugar, fats, albumen, mineral substances, indigestible substances.
The digestible food elements are often grouped, according to their chemical composition, into three classes; vis., carbonaceous, nitrogenous, and inorganic. The carbonaceous class includes starch, sugar, and fats; the nitrogenous, all albuminous elements; and the inorganic comprises the mineral elements.
Starch is only found in vegetable foods; all grains, most vegetables, and some fruits, contain starch in abundance. Several kinds of sugar are made in nature's laboratory; cane, grape, fruit, and milk sugar. The first is obtained from the sugar-cane, the sap of maple trees, and from the beet root. Grape and fruit sugars are found in most fruits and in honey. Milk sugar is one of the constituents of milk. Glucose, an artificial sugar resembling grape sugar, is now largely manufactured by subjecting the starch of corn or potatoes to a chemical process; but it lacks the sweetness of natural sugars, and is by no means a proper substitute for them. Albumen is found in its purest, uncombined state in the white of an egg, which is almost wholly composed of albumen. It exists, combined with other food elements, in many other foods, both animal and vegetable. It is found abundant in oatmeal, and to some extent in the other grains, and in the juices of vegetables. All natural foods contain elements which in many respects resemble albumen, and are so closely allied to it that for convenience they are usually classified under the general name of "albumen." The chief of these is gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, and barley. Casein, found in peas, beans, and milk, and the fibrin of flesh, are elements of this class.
Fats are found in both animal and vegetable foods. Of animal fats, butter and suet are common examples. In vegetable form, fat is abundant in nuts, peas, beans, in various of the grains, and in a few fruits, as the olive. As furnished by nature in nuts, legumes, grains, fruits, and milk, this element is always found in a state of fine subdivision, which condition is the one best adapted to its digestion. As most commonly used, in the form of free fats, as butter, lard, etc., it is not only difficult of digestion itself, but often interferes with the digestion of the other food elements which are mixed with it. It was doubtless never intended that fats should be so modified from their natural condition and separated from other food elements as to be used as a separate article of food. The same may be said of the other carbonaceous elements, sugar and starch, neither of which, when used alone, is capable of sustaining life, although when combined in a proper and natural manner with other food elements, they perform a most important part in the nutrition of the body. Most foods contain a percentage of the mineral elements. Grains and milk furnish these elements in abundance. The cellulose, or woody tissue, of vegetables, and the bran of wheat, are examples of indigestible elements, which although they cannot be converted into blood in tissue, serve an important purpose by giving bulk to the food.
With the exception of gluten, none of the food elements, when used alone, are capable of supporting life. A true food substance contains some of all the food elements, the amount of each varying in different foods.
Uses of the food elements.
Concerning the purpose which these different elements serve, it has been demonstrated by the experiments of eminent physiologists that the carbonaceous elements, which in general comprise the greater bulk of the food, serve three purposes in the body;
1. They furnish material for the production of heat;
2. They are a source of force when taken in connection with other food elements;
3. They replenish the fatty tissues of the body. Of the carbonaceous elements, starch, sugar, and fats, fats produce the greatest amount of heat in proportion to quantity; that is, more heat is developed from a pound of fat than from an equal weight of sugar or starch; but this apparent advantage is more than counterbalanced by the fact that fats are much more difficult of digestion than are the other carbonaceous elements, and if relied upon to furnish adequate material for bodily heat, would be productive of much mischief in overtaxing and producing disease of the digestive organs. The fact that nature has made a much more ample provision of starch and sugars than of fats in man's natural diet, would seem to indicate that they were intended to be the chief source of carbonaceous food; nevertheless, fats, when taken in such proportion as nature supplies them, are necessary and important food elements.
The nitrogenous food elements especially nourish the brain, nerves, muscles, and all the more highly vitalized and active tissues of the body, and also serve as a stimulus to tissue change. Hence it may be said that a food deficient in these elements is a particularly poor food.
The inorganic elements, chief of which are the phosphates, in the carbonates of potash, soda, and lime, aid in furnishing the requisite building material for bones and nerves.
Proper combinations of foods.
While it is important that our food should contain some of all the various food elements, experiments upon both animals and human beings show it is necessary that these elements, especially the nitrogenous and carbonaceous, be used in certain definite proportions, as the system is only able to appropriate a certain amount of each; and all excess, especially of nitrogenous elements, is not only useless, but even injurious, since to rid the system of the surplus imposes an additional task upon the digestive and excretory organs. The relative proportion of these elements necessary to constitute a food which perfectly meets the requirements of the system, is six of carbonaceous to one of nitrogenous. Scientists have devoted much careful study and experimentation to the determination of the quantities of each of the food elements required for the daily nourishment of individuals under the varying conditions of life, and it has come to be commonly accepted that of the nitrogenous material which should constitute one sixth of the nutrients taken, about three ounces is all that can be made use of in twenty-four hours, by a healthy adult of average weight, doing a moderate amount of work. Many articles of food are, however, deficient in one or the other of these elements, and need to be supplemented by other articles containing the deficient element in superabundance, since to employ a dietary in which any one of the nutritive elements is lacking, although in bulk it may be all the digestive organs can manage, is really starvation, and will in time occasion serious results.
It is thus apparent that much care should be exercised in the selection and combination of food materials. Such knowledge is of first importance in the education of cooks and housekeepers, since to them falls the selection of the food for the daily needs of the household; and they should not only understand what foods are best suited to supply these needs, but how to combine them in accordance with physiological laws.
Thursday, 27 January 2011
Vegetables, fruits, and grains are normally low in
fat and have no cholesterol. Most are great sources
of dietary fiber, complex carbs, and vitamins.
The American Heart Association recommends that you
eat foods that are high in complex carbs and fiber.
Below are some tips for making healthy food choices:
- Coconut is high in saturated fat, while olives
are high in monounsaturated fats and calories. You
should use these items sparingly to avoid getting
too many calories from fat.
- When vegetable grains are cooked, saturated fat
or cholesterol is often added. For example, egg
yolks may be added to bread or even pasta.
- Processed, canned, or preserved vegetables may
also contain added sodium. With some people, too
much sodium (salt) may lead to high blood pressure.
There are some food companies that are actually
canning vegetables with less salt. You can look
for these in the market area or choose fresh and
even frozen vegetables.
- Nuts and seeds tend to be high in calories and
fat, although a majority of the fat is polyunsaturated
or monounsaturated. There are some varieties,
macadamie nuts for example, that are also high in
Foods that are high in soluble fiber are a great
choice as well. Examples include oat bran,
oatmeal, beans, peas, rice bran, barley, and
even apple pulp.
Whenever you are looking for healthy food choices,
always make sure you read the nutrition label
or information about the food. You can then
determine what the food contains and how healthy
it truly is for your body. By taking your time
and making your healthy food choices wisely,
you'll have a lifetime to enjoy the foods that
will take care of you.
Monday, 24 January 2011
To boil lobsters.
Ingredients:- 1/4 lb. of salt to each gallon of water.
Mode:- Medium-sized lobsters are the best. Have ready a stewpan of boiling water, salted in the above proportion; put in the lobster, and keep it boiling quickly from 20 minutes to 3/4 hour, according to its size, and do not forget to skim well. If it boils too long, the meat becomes thready, and if not done enough, the spawn is not red: this must be obviated by great attention. Hub the shell over with a little butter or sweet oil, which wipe off again.
Time. Small lobster, 20 minutes to 1/2 hour; large ditto, 1/2 to 1/3 hour.
Ingredients:- 1 lobster, 2 oz. of butter, grated nutmeg; salt, pepper, and pounded mace, to taste; bread crumbs, 2 eggs.
Mode:- Pound the meat of the lobster to a smooth paste with the butter and seasoning, and add a few bread crumbs. Beat the eggs, and make the whole mixture into the form of a lobster; pound the spawn, and sprinkle over it. Bake 1/4 hour, and just before serving, lay over it the tail and body shell, with the small claws underneath, to resemble a lobster.
Time. 1/4 hour.
Ingredients:- 1 hen lobster, lettuces, endive, small salad (whatever is in season), a little chopped beetroot, 2 hard-boiled eggs, a few slices of cucumber. For dressing, equal quantities of oil and vinegar, 1 teaspoonful of made mustard, the yolks of 2 eggs; cayenne and salt to taste; 3 teaspoonful of anchovy sauce. These ingredients should be mixed perfectly smooth, and form a creamy-looking sauce.
Mode:- Wash the salad, and thoroughly dry it by shaking it in a cloth. Cut up the lettuces and endive, pour the dressing on them, and lightly throw in the small salad. Mix all well together with the pickings from the body of the lobster; pick the meat from the shell, cut it up into nice square pieces, put half in the salad, the other half reserve for garnishing. Separate the yolks from the whites of 2 hard-boiled eggs; chop the whites very fine, and rub the yolks through a sieve, and afterwards the coral from the inside. Arrange the salad lightly on a glass dish, and garnish, first with a row of sliced cucumber, then with the pieces of lobster, the yolks and whites of the eggs, coral, and beetroot placed alternately, and arranged in small separate bunches, so that the colours contrast nicely.
Note. A few crayfish make a pretty garnishing to lobster salad.
Lobster (a la mode francaise).
Ingredients:- 1 lobster, 4 tablespoonfuls of white stock, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, pounded mace, and cayenne to taste; bread crumbs.
Mode:- Pick the meat from the shell, and cut it up into small square pieces; put the stock, cream, and seasoning into a stewpan, add the lobster, and let it simmer gently for 6 minutes. Serve it in the shell, which must be nicely cleaned, and have a border of puff-paste; cover it with bread crumbs, place small pieces of butter over, and brown before the fire, or with a salamander.
Time. 1/4 hour.
Lobster curry (an Entree).
Ingredients:- 1 lobster, 2 onions, 1 oz. butter, 1 tablespoonful of curry-powder, 1/2 pint of medium stock, the juice of 1/2 lemon.
Mode:- Pick the meat from the shell, and cut it into nice square pieces; fry the onions of a pale brown in the butter, stir in the curry-powder and stock, and simmer till it thickens, when put in the lobster; stew the whole slowly for 1/2 hour, and stir occasionally; and just before sending to table, put in the lemon-juice. Serve boiled rice with it, the same as for other curries.
Time. Altogether, 3/4 hour.
Lobster cutlets (an Entree).
Ingredients:- 1 large hen lobster, 1 oz. fresh butter, 1/2 saltspoonful of salt, pounded mace, grated nutmeg, cayenne and white pepper to taste, egg, and bread crumbs.
Mode:- Pick the meat from the shell, and pound it in a mortar with the butter, and gradually add the mace and seasoning, well mixing the ingredients; beat all to a smooth paste, and add a little of the spawn; divide the mixture into pieces of an equal size, and shape them like cutlets. They should not be very thick. Brush them over with egg, and sprinkle with bread crumbs, and stick a short piece of the small claw in the top of each; fry them of a nice brown in boiling lard, and drain them before the fire, on a sieve reversed; arrange them nicely on a dish, and pour bechamel in the middle, but not over the cutlets.
Time. About 8 minutes after the cutlets are made.
Lobster patties (an Entree).
Ingredients:- Minced lobster, 4 tablespoonfuls of bechamel, 6 drops of anchovy sauce, lemon-juice, cayenne to taste.
Mode:- Line the patty-pans with puff-paste, and put into each a small piece of bread: cover with paste, brush over with egg, and bake of a light colour. Take as much lobster as is required, mince the meat very fine, and add the above ingredients; stir it over the fire for 6 minutes; remove the lids of the patty-cases, take out the bread, fill with the mixture, and replace the covers.
Ingredients:- 2 lobsters; seasoning to taste, of nutmeg, pounded mace, white pepper, and salt; 1/4 lb. of butter, 3 or 4 bay-leaves.
Mode:- Take out the meat carefully from the shell, but do not cut it up. Put some butter at the bottom of a dish, lay in the lobster as evenly as possible, with the bay-leaves and seasoning between. Cover with butter, and bake for 3/4 hour in a gentle oven. When done, drain the whole on a sieve, and lay the pieces in potting-jars, with the seasoning about them. When cold, pour over it clarified butter, and, if very highly seasoned, it will keep some time.
Sunday, 23 January 2011
Ingredients:- 6 oz. of salt to each gallon of water, sufficient water to cover the fish.
Mode:- Scale and clean the fish, and be particular that no blood is left inside; lay it in the fish-kettle with sufficient cold water to cover it, adding salt in the above proportion. Bring it quickly to a boil, take off all the scum, and let it simmer gently till the fish is done, which will be when the meat separates easily from the bone. Experience alone can teach the cook to fix the time for boiling fish; but it is especially to be remembered, that it should never be underdressed, as then nothing is more unwholesome. Neither let it remain in the kettle after it is sufficiently cooked, as that would render it insipid, watery, and colourless. Drain it, and if not wanted for a few minutes, keep it warm by means of warm cloths laid over it. Serve on a hot napkin, garnish with cut lemon and parsley, and send lobster or shrimp sauce, and plain melted butter to table with it. A dish of dressed cucumber usually accompanies this fish.
Time. 8 minutes to each lb. for large thick salmon; 6 minutes for thin fish.
Note. Cut lemon should be put on the table with this fish; and a little of the juice squeezed over it is considered by many persons a most agreeable addition. Boiled peas are also, by some connoisseurs, considered especially adapted to be served with salmon.
Salmon and caper sauce.
Ingredients:- 2 slices of salmon, 1/4 lb. batter, 1/2 teaspoonful of chopped parsley, 1 shalot; salt, pepper, and grated nutmeg to taste.
Mode:- Lay the salmon in a baking-dish, place pieces of butter over it, and add the other ingredients, rubbing a little of the seasoning into the fish; baste it frequently; when done, take it out and drain for a minute or two; lay it in a dish, pour caper sauce over it, and serve. Salmon dressed in this way, with tomato sauce, is very delicious.
Time. About 3/4 hour.
Ingredients:- A piece of salmon, say 3 lbs., a high seasoning of salt, pounded mace, and pepper; water and vinegar, 3 bay-leaves.
Mode:- Split the fish; scale, bone, and wash it thoroughly clean; wipe it, and rub in the seasoning inside and out; roll it up, and bind firmly; lay it in a kettle, cover it with vinegar and water (1/3 vinegar, in proportion to the water); add the bay-leaves and a good seasoning of salt and whole pepper, and simmer till done. Do not remove the lid. Serve with melted butter or anchovy sauce. For preserving the collared fish, boil up the liquor in which it was cooked, and add a little more vinegar. Pour over when cold.
Time. 3/4 hour, or rather more.
Ingredients:- Any remains of boiled salmon, 3/4 pint of strong or medium stock, 1 onion, 1 tablespoonful of curry-powder, 1 teaspoonful of Harvey's sauce, 1 teaspoonful of anchovy sauce, 1 oz. of butter, the juice of 1/2 lemon, cayenne and salt to taste.
Mode:- Cut up the onions into small pieces, and fry them of a pale brown in the butter; add all the ingredients but the salmon, and simmer gently till the onion is tender, occasionally stirring the contents; cut the salmon into small square pieces, carefully take away all skin and bone, lay it in the stewpan, and let it gradually heat through; but do not allow it to boil long.
Time. 3/4 hour.
Cut the slices 1 inch thick, and season them with pepper and salt; butter a sheet of white paper, lay each slice on a separate piece, with their ends twisted; broil gently over a clear fire, and serve with anchovy or caper sauce. When higher seasoning is required, add a few chopped herbs and a little spice.
Time. 5 to 10 minutes.
Salmon a la genevese.
Ingredients:- 2 slices of salmon, 2 chopped shalots, a little parsley, a small bunch of herbs, 2 bay-leaves, 2 carrots, pounded mace, pepper and salt to taste, 4 tablespoonfuls of Madeira, 1/2 pint of white stock, thickening of butter and flour, 1 teaspoonful of essence of anchovies, the juice of 1 lemon, cayenne and salt to taste.
Mode:- Rub the bottom of a stewpan over with butter, and put in the shalots, herbs, bay-leaves, carrots, mace, and seasoning; stir them for 10 minutes over a clear fire, and add the Madeira or sherry; simmer gently for 1/2 hour, and strain through a sieve over the fish, which stew in this gravy. As soon as the fish is sufficiently cooked, take away all the liquor, except a little to keep the salmon moist, and put it into another stewpan; add the stock, thicken with butter and flour, and put in the anchovies, lemon-juice, cayenne, and salt; lay the salmon on a hot dish, pour over it part of the sauce, and serve the remainder in a tureen.