Thursday, 17 March 2011


All grains, with the exception of rice, and the various grain meals, require prolonged cooking with gentle and continuous heat, in order to so disintegrate their tissues and change their starch into dextrine as to render them easy of digestion. Even the so-called "steam-cooked" grains, advertised to be ready for use in five or ten minutes, require a much longer cooking to properly fit them for digestion. These so-called quickly prepared grains are simply steamed before grinding, which has the effect to destroy any low organisms contained in the grain. They are then crushed and shredded. Bicarbonate of soda and lime is added to help dissolve the albuminoids, and sometimes diastase to aid the conversion of the starch into sugar; but there is nothing in this preparatory process that so alters the chemical nature of the grain as to make it possible to cook it ready for easy digestion in five or ten minutes. An insufficiently cooked grain, although it may be palatable, is not in a condition to be readily acted upon by the digestive fluids, and is in consequence left undigested to act as a mechanical irritant.

Water is the liquid usually employed for cooking grains, but many of them are richer and finer flavored when milk is mixed with the water, one part to two of water. Especially is this true of rice, hominy, and farina. When water is used, soft water is preferable to hard. No salt is necessary, but if used at all, it is generally added to the water before stirring in the grain or meal.

The quantity of liquid required varies with the different grains, the manner in which they are milled, the method by which they are cooked, and the consistency desired for the cooked grain, more liquid being required for a porridge than for a mush.

All grains should be carefully looked over before being put to cook.

In the cooking of grains, the following points should be observed:

1. Measure both liquid and grain accurately with the same utensil, or with two of equal size.

2. Have the water boiling when the grain is introduced, but do not allow it to boil for a long time previous, until it is considerably evaporated, as that will change the proportion of water and grain sufficiently to alter the consistency of the mush when cooked. Introduce the grain slowly, so as not to stop the sinking to the bottom, and the whole becomes thickened.

3. Stir the grain continuously until it has set, but not at all afterward. Grains are much more appetizing if, while properly softened, they can still be made to retain their original form. Stirring renders the preparation pasty, and destroys its appearance.

In the preparation of all mushes with meal or flour, it is a good plan to make the material into a batter with a portion of the liquid retained from the quantity given, before introducing it into the boiling water. This prevents the tendency to cook in lumps, so frequent when dry meal is scattered into boiling liquid. Care must be taken, however, to add the moistened portion very slowly, stirring vigorously meantime, so that the boiling will not be checked. Use warm water for moistening. The other directions given for the whole or broken grains are applicable to the ground products.

Place the grain, when sufficiently cooked, in the refrigerator or in some place where it will cool quickly (as slow cooling might cause fermentation), to remain overnight.

SantooBama Directory

Monday, 14 March 2011


During the period between the birth and maturity of animals, their flesh undergoes very considerable changes. For instance, when the animal is young, the fluids which the tissues of the muscles contain, possess a large proportion of what is called albumen . This albumen, which is also the chief component of the white of eggs, possesses the peculiarity of coagulating or hardening at a certain temperature, like the white of a boiled egg, into a soft, white fluid, no longer soluble, or capable of being dissolved in water. As animals grow older, this peculiar animal matter gradually decreases, in proportion to the other constituents of the juice of the flesh. Thus, the reason why veal, lamb are white, and without gravy when cooked, is, that the large quantity of albumen they contain hardens, or becomes coagulated. On the other hand, the reason why beef and mutton are brown, and have gravy , is, that the proportion of albumen they contain, is small, in comparison with their greater quantity of fluid which is soluble, and not coagulable.

The quality of the flesh of an animal is considerably influenced by the nature of the food on which it has been fed ; for the food supplies the material which produces the flesh. If the food be not suitable and good, the meat cannot be good either. To the experienced in this matter, it is well known that the flesh of animals fed on farinaceous produce, such as corn, pulse, &c., is firm, well-flavoured, and also economical in the cooking; that the flesh of those fed on succulent and pulpy substances, such as roots, possesses these qualities in a somewhat less degree; whilst the flesh of those whose food contains fixed oil, as linseed, is greasy, high coloured, and gross in the fat, and if the food has been used in large quantities, possessed of a rank flavour.

It is indispensable to the good quality of meat, that the animal should be perfectly healthy at the time of its slaughter. However slight the disease in an animal may be, inferiority in the quality of its flesh, as food, is certain to be produced. In most cases, indeed, as the flesh of diseased animals has a tendency to very rapid putrefaction, it becomes not only unwholesome, but absolutely poisonous, on account of the absorption of the virus of the unsound meat into the systems of those who partake of it. The external indications of good and bad meat will be described under its own particular head, but we may here premise that the layer of all wholesome meat, when freshly killed, adheres firmly to the bone.

Another circumstance greatly affecting the quality of meat, is the animal's treatment before it is slaughtered . This influences its value and wholesomeness in no inconsiderable degree. It will be easy to understand this, when we reflect on those leading principles by which the life of an animal is supported and maintained. These are, the digestion of its food, and the assimilation of that food into its substance. Nature, in effecting this process, first reduces the food in the stomach to a state of pulp, under the name of chyme, which passes into the intestines, and is there divided into two principles, each distinct from the other. One, a milk-white fluid, the nutritive portion, is absorbed by innumerable vessels which open upon the mucous membrane, or inner coat of the intestines. These vessels, or absorbents, discharge the fluid into a common duct, or road, along which it is conveyed to the large veins in the neighbourhood of the heart. Here it is mixed with the venous blood (which is black and impure) returning from every part of the body, and then it supplies the waste which is occasioned in the circulating stream by the arterial (or pure) blood having furnished matter for the substance of the animal. The blood of the animal having completed its course through all parts, and having had its waste recruited by the digested food, is now received into the heart, and by the action of that organ it is urged through the lungs, there to receive its purification from the air which the animal inhales. Again returning to the heart, it is forced through the arteries, and thence distributed, by innumerable ramifications, called capillaries, bestowing to every part of the animal, life and nutriment. The other principle the innutritive portion passes from the intestines, and is thus got rid of. It will now be readily understood how flesh is affected for bad, if an animal is slaughtered when the circulation of its blood has been increased by over-driving, ill-usage, or other causes of excitement, to such a degree of rapidity as to be too great for the capillaries to perform their functions, and causing the blood to be congealed in its minuter vessels. Where this has been the case, the meat will be dark-coloured, and become rapidly putrid; so that self-interest and humanity alike dictate kind and gentle treatment of all animals destined to serve as food for man.

Saturday, 12 March 2011

Eating For A Healthy Heart

Bad cholesterol or a bad diet is something we all

experience at some point in time. It's impossible

to eat healthy our whole lives, even though we may

try hard to do it. Eating healthy for your heart

is something everyone should try to do, especially

when it comes to restoring health and reducing

heart attacks.

Your heart and food

We know these things for sure - a diet high in

saturated fats will help raise your cholesterol,

which is a risk factor for heart disease. People

that are obese are more prone to heart disease. A

diet high in sodium may elevate your blood pressure,

leading to inflammation and even heart disease.

To help prevent heart disease and improve your health,

put the tips below to good use.

Eat plenty of fish

Herring, sardines, and salmon are all excellent sources

of Omega 3 essential fatty acids. Other fish are great

to, although Omega 3 may help to get your cholesterol

down to a healthier level.

Choosing healthy fats and oils

Saturated fat will increase the risk of heart disease.

It's found in meat, butter, and even coconut oil. You

should avoid them until your cholesterol levels are

down and you are at a healthy weight. Even those

that love red meats can enjoy seafood and nuts for

their main sources of protein.

Monounsaturated fats such as olive oils will help

you to protect your heart. Olive oil is an ideal

choice for cooking, dressing, or even as a dipping


Plenty of fiber

Fiber can help you control your cholesterol. You

can find fiber in whole grain products to help

control sugar absorption as well, which will help

you keep your digestive system healthy.

Choosing carbohydrates

Eating for your heart involves staying away from

sugary foods such as candy, cookies, cakes, and

pastries. Eating a lot of sugar isn't good for

your heart disease at all. Healthy carbohydrates

involve whole grain breads, whole grain pasta, brown

rice, and a lot of vegetables. You should make

fruits and vegetables the main aspect of your diet.

Healthy cooking methods

Stir frying and sauteing with olive oil or canola

oil are both great methods, as you shouldn't dip

your food in batter and fry it anymore. If you

cook chicken, remove the skin and bake it in the

oven in foil.

Instead of frying your fish you should always bake

it. Steaming your vegetables can help maintain the

most nutrients. You should use cream sauces or lots

of butter anymore either. When you eat vegetables,

try squeezing lemon juice on them or using your

favorite seasonings.

As you make the proper changes to your diet, keep in

mind that it takes time for them to become habits.

Eating healthy is always great for your body and your

lifestyle, especially when it comes to your heart and

the prevention of heart disease.

Thursday, 10 March 2011

Eating Healthy For Students

For students, eating at college is an entire new

ball game, with late night pizza delivery and food

from buggies. Even though some of these quick and

simple options taste great, they are probably

not healthy for a student's body.

The food choices students make can affect whether

or not they are able to remain awake during class

and whether or not they will come down with

mononucleosis when it hits campus. The problem

is not only about eating junk food, it's more

about not getting the proper proteins, carbs,

vitamins, and minerals that people need.

When it comes to defending against illnesses,

vitamins and minerals are very important. Just

because they are important, isn't a reason for

students to run out and stock up on vitamins and

supplements. It's best for students to get their

nutrition from food.

You can find vitamin C in citric fruits, Vitamin

A in milk and diary products, and vitamin E in

nuts, whole wheat products, and even green leafy

vegetables. This is the ideal way to get

nutrition, as your body relies on these vitamins

for many reasons.

When you eat on campus, skip on the soda's and

go right to the juice machines. Explore the

different entrees available and go to the salad

bar where there are fresh vegetables. You can

also try putting some broccoli and cauliflower

in the microwave for steamed vegetables. There

are always healthy cereals and plenty of fresh

fruit available in dining halls as well.

Always remember that eating healthy isn't just

about avoiding greasy foods. Eating healthy

involves getting a balanced diet and getting the

right nutrients and vitamins to keep your body

in peak performance - or at least awake during

Tuesday, 8 March 2011

Eating Healthy For Vegetarians

The vegetarian way of eating can be a very healthy style

of eating. The rules still apply with healthy eating,

although you should add variety, balance, and moderation.

A vegetarian is someone who avoids all types of meat,

whether it be hamburgers, hotdogs, chicken, or even fish.

Vegetarians are also sometimes classified by the type of

food they are or aren't willing to eat. For example,

Lacto-ovo vegetarians will avoid animal flesh yet they

will eat eggs and most dairy products. A Vegan on the

other hand, will avoid all food that has any trace of

animal origin.

Because they don't eat meet, vegetarians will often

wonder how they'll get enough protein. Although you may

not realize it, the average American actually consumes

more protein than he actually needs. For the lacto-ovo

vegetarian, dairy products are an excellent source of

protein. Vegans on the other hand, get their protein

from nuts, seeds, and soy products.

Along the lines of beans, there are several to choose

from, including green or red lentils, peanuts, split

peas, pinto, soy, kidney, and many more. Some of them

you are already familiar, such as kidney beans in

chili, refried beans in Mexican dishes, red beans and

rice, and pinto beans. Although some beans taste good

as they are, others are available with different flavors

to help enhance their taste. Nuts are hihg in protein,

although they deliver a lot more fat than beans, which

means you should enjoy them in moderation. By having

one cup of cooked beans, you'll get the same amount of

protein as eating two ounces of meat!

The nutrients of concern for vegans, who avoid all types

of animal food, are vitamin B12, calcium, and vitamin D.

In the average North American diet, the primary source

for B12 is animals. To have an adequate intake of B12,

vegans should reguarly consume vitamin B12 supplements or

foods, which contain vitamin B12, such as soy products

or milk.

For calcium, vegans can rely on orange juice or soy

milk, as they are fortified with calcium. Beans and

leafy green vegetables will also contain some calcium as


Although all types of vegetarians rely on simple food

groups, controlling your vitamins and calcium intake is

something you should always do. This is very important

for eating healthy, as well as staying healthy. If you

control what you eat, you'll have many years of healthy

Saturday, 5 March 2011

Eating Healthy On A Budget

If you have problems serving healthy foods because

of the prices, you'll find these tips to be just

what you need to eat healthy on a budget.

1. Eliminate junk food

Doing your shopping on your own is the easiest way

to shop, as children and sometimes spouses are

usually the ones requesting junk food. Shopping

alone will prevent this, and ensure that you only

buy the foods you need.

2. Water or milk instead of soft drinks

You can still enjoy your favorite drinks at a

sporting event or night out, although you should

stick with the smallest size when shopping to save

money and calories. Children and even adults need

milk or milk products on a daily basis. Milk will

also help you get strong and provides calcium for

healthy bones and healthy teeth.

3. Buy fruits in quantity

Whne they are in season, buy fruits in quantity

and freeze any extras. You can buy several pounds

this way, and freeze extras to have them when the

fruit goes out of season. Wash the fruit well,

remove any spoiled pieces, dry thoroughly, then

freeze in plastic zipper bags.

4. Meats and beans

Meats and beans are the best sources for protein.

Lean meat is more expensive than meats with a lot

of fat. Canned beans are a great deal as well,

as they give you protein at a great price.

5. Beans as a substitute

You should use beans a substitute for meat on a

frequent occasion. There are several varieties,

so you can prepare them in a crock pot, so when

you return home they are ready to consume.

The USDA recommends eating beans at least 4 times

per week. If you experience gas after eating

beans you should try washing them, covering them

with water, bringing the water to a boil, then

draining it off and refilling the pot.

6. If you live in a coastal area or an area

where fish are around, make that an integral

part of your diet. You can catch them from the

lakes or rivers, saving money in the process.

7. Peanut butter is great for those on a budget

as it's popular with almost everyone. You can

use it for sandwiches instead of eating hot

dogs. It does need to be refrigerated, although

bigger jars can last you for weeks.

8. You should fill up with foods that have a high

content of water. Watermelon, salads, and even

sugar free gelatin are all great examples.

Eating healthy is always something you can't go

wrong with. You can eat healthy for just a few

bucks, which makes it perfect for those on a

budget. Now, you don't need a lot of money to have

the lifestyle and health you've always wanted.

Thursday, 3 March 2011

Eating Healthy On The Run

Whether your traveling on the go or around the

home, you don't need to give up healthy eating

simply because you are on the run. The fact is,

healthy eating is even more important when your

trying to keep up with a busy schedule.

Having a good diet will help your body to handle

stress better. As you hustle about, a healthy meal

is probably the last thing you think about. The

following tips can help you eat when your on the go.


With tempting menus, large portions, and a festive

atmosphere, it's easy to skip healthy eating. It's

okay to splurge every now and then, although you'll

pack on a lot of weight if you make it a habit.

When you eat out at restaurants, always be smart

about it.


An airport can be a very stressful place, although

you shouldn't scrap your diet because of it. Eat

because you are hungry, not because of stress,

boredom, or to kill time.

In your car

Keep some healthy snacks in your car at all times,

so that when you get hungry - you have them.

At home

Evenings and mornings are busy times in most homes.

Making the time to eat can be hard, although you

shouldn't run out the door without eating breakfast

first. Cereal with milk, a banana, muffin, or even

a bagel is a great way to start the day.

Anytime you are on the go, always make sure that you

make the right food decisions. You can take healthy

food with you if you need to, so that you have it

when you need it. Eating healthy on the go is easy

to do, once you know how. Never sacrifice healthy

food for junk, as your body will regret it later.

Tuesday, 1 March 2011


Lean, juicy beef, mutton, and veal, form the basis of all good soups; therefore it is advisable to procure those pieces which afford the richest succulence, and such as are fresh-killed. Stale meat renders them bad, and fat is not so well adapted for making them. The principal art in composing good rich soup, is so to proportion the several ingredients that the flavour of one shall not predominate over another, and that all the articles of which it is composed, shall form an agreeable whole. To accomplish this, care must be taken that the roots and herbs are perfectly well cleaned, and that the water is proportioned to the quantity of meat and other ingredients. Generally a quart of water may be allowed to a pound of meat for soups, and half the quantity for gravies. In making soups or gravies, gentle stewing or simmering is incomparably the best. It may be remarked, however, that a really good soup can never be made but in a well-closed vessel, although, perhaps, greater wholesomeness is obtained by an occasional exposure to the air. Soups will, in general, take from three to six hours doing, and are much better prepared the day before they are wanted. When the soup is cold, the fat may be much more easily and completely removed; and when it is poured off, care must be taken not to disturb the settlings at the bottom of the vessel, which are so fine that they will escape through a sieve. A tamis is the best strainer, and if the soup is strained while it is hot, let the tamis or cloth be previously soaked in cold water. Clear soups must be perfectly transparent, and thickened soups about the consistence of cream. To thicken and give body to soups and gravies, potato-mucilage, arrow-root, bread-raspings, isinglass, flour and butter, barley, rice, or oatmeal, in a little water rubbed well together, are used. A piece of boiled beef pounded to a pulp, with a bit of butter and flour, and rubbed through a sieve, and gradually incorporated with the soup, will be found an excellent addition. When the soup appears to be too thin or too weak , the cover of the boiler should be taken off, and the contents allowed to boil till some of the watery parts have evaporated; or some of the thickening materials, above mentioned, should be added. When soups and gravies are kept from day to day in hot weather, they should be warmed up every day, and put into fresh scalded pans or tureens, and placed in a cool cellar. In temperate weather, every other day may be sufficient.

Various herbs and vegetables are required for the purpose of making soups and gravies. Of these the principal are, Scotch barley, pearl barley, wheat flour, oatmeal, bread-raspings, pease, beans, rice, vermicelli, macaroni, isinglass, potato-mucilage, mushroom or mushroom ketchup, champignons, parsnips, carrots, beetroot, turnips, garlic, shalots and onions. Sliced onions, fried with butter and flour till they are browned, and then rubbed through a sieve, are excellent to heighten the colour and flavour of brown soups and sauces, and form the basis of many of the fine relishes furnished by the cook. The older and drier the onion, the stronger will be its flavour. Leeks, cucumber, or burnet vinegar; celery or celery-seed pounded. The latter, though equally strong, does not impart the delicate sweetness of the fresh vegetable; and when used as a substitute, its flavour should be corrected by the addition of a bit of sugar. Cress-seed, parsley, common thyme, lemon thyme, orange thyme, knotted marjoram, sage, mint, winter savoury, and basil. As fresh green basil is seldom to be procured, and its fine flavour is soon lost, the best way of preserving the extract is by pouring wine on the fresh leaves.

For the seasoning of soups, bay-leaves, tomato, tarragon, chervil, burnet, allspice, cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, clove, mace, black and white pepper, essence of anchovy, lemon-peel, and juice, and Seville orange-juice, are all taken. The latter imparts a finer flavour than the lemon, and the acid is much milder. These materials, with wine, mushroom ketchup, Harvey's sauce, tomato sauce, combined in various proportions, are, with other ingredients, manipulated into an almost endless variety of excellent soups and gravies. Soups, which are intended to constitute the principal part of a meal, certainly ought not to be flavoured like sauces, which are only designed to give a relish to some particular dish.